Mladi v Odkivanju Skupnih Poti / Mladinska Sekcjia Slovenske Skupnosti – MOSP (Slovenes in Italy)
address: Ulica Gallina, 5/ III / Ulica Donizetti 3
place: I- 34122 Trieste / Trst / I- 34133 Trieste/ Trst
phone: +39 040 639126 / + 39 328 9726655
fax: +39 040 3474637 / +39 040 633307
MOSP (Mladi v Odkrivanju Skupnih Poti – Youth in the search for common paths) is a youth organisation with the main goal in givin to the young in age from 18 to 35 a chance to express their will to do cultural, artistic and recreactive activities. MOSP was founded in 1991. With a constant evolution in its form, we came to this year with a better internal organization. We have 20 active members in the board. And around 50 other general members. Our Minority is located in the province of Trst/Trieste, Gorica/Gorizia, Videm/Udine in the region of Furlanija Julijska Krajina/Friuli Venezia Giulia and counts around 80.000 – 100.000 slovenian speaking people. The minority is aknowledged since the end of world war two. Relations with the majority are only at a formal level (political) with many troubles. From a point of view of the cultural organisations there are basically no relationships (two separate worlds). Basically the minority is not so well accepted especially at the political and insitutional level. The Italian state gives an important part of the economical needs for the needs of the minority (with some delays…). We receive financial support also from the Slovenian state. We have the complete school sistem in slovenian language (from kindergartens to high school – no university). We have a daily newspaper, a radio station, and many magazines. We have a daily hour of television broadcasting. The biggest problem of our minority in this moment is a lack of financial support, basically because of the economical crisis, and also because of the political leaders of the moment. Our specific goal is to make the minority live in harmony with the majority.
Province of Trieste/Trst, Gorizia/Gorica, and Udine/Videm.
The Slovenians in Italy are an indigenous ethnic group. Their settlement goes back to the 6th century, when the Slavic migration reached the Friaulian plain. In the time of absolutism the ethnic affiliation of the Slovenians was not affected, with the exception of the cities of Trieste/Trst and Gorizia/Gorica, where for economical a gap soon developed between the Italian-speaking centre and the Slovenian-speaking invirement. With the creation the nations in the current sense in the 19th century, arose conflicts between the Slovenianand Italian-speaking populations. In 1866, Venice joined Italy, and after the World War I was followed by the regions around Trieste/Trst and Gorizia/Gorica, as well as the Kanaltal. Until this time they had been part of the Austrian-Hungarian monarchy. The Slovenians of Venice hoped to get those rights in Italy which Austria had with held, but this did not. The situation did not change after World War I. Italy did not take over any international responsibilities for the protection of the minorities which had joined the State with the agreements of St. Germain and Rapallo. The neglect of the Slovenian minority was followed by targeted assimilation in the time of fascism. It proceeded on the assumption that there was no people other than Italians in Italy and no language other than Italian spoken. As a result the Slovenian language was forbidden in public, Slovenian inscriptions removed, all Slovenian associations and media abolished, Slovenian schools supressed, and the properties of Slovenian undertakings and institutions confiscated. Slovenian names were italized and Slovenians in public service were dismissed or removed to an inner part of the country. A strong wave of emigration resulted, especially among Slovenian intellectuals (priests and teachers). At the end of World War II, the area was occupied by Jugoslavian troops for a month. On the 9th of June, 1945, a treaty was signed in Belgrade with which the Julian region was divided into two regions: zone A under the Anglo-American administration and zone B under Jugoslavian administration; unaffected were Venice and the Kanaltal, which had been adjudged to Italy. In 1947, it was determined in Paris that the area around Gorizia/Gorica be adjudged to Italy again. The area around Trieste/Trst had been up to this time a bipartite, autonomous area (one part under the Jugoslavian, one part under the Italian administration) and was devided in agreement between both states with the London memorandum of 1954.
Slovenian is spoken in 36 communities of the region Friuli-Venezia Giulia: in the Valleys Val Canale (quadralingual: Slovenian, Italian, German, Friulian), in the Valle di Resia, in the upper Valle di Torre, in the Valle del Natisono and in the upperCollio in the province of Udine, in Carso and in Gorizia in the province Gorizia, and all of the province of Trieste excpt the coastal strip between Trieste and the Slovenian border. All these territories are at least bi-lingual. The legal situation of the Slovenian language differs from province to province. In Udine the Slovenians hold no legally anchored rights. In Gorizia the Slovenians are entitled to run their own schools. The best minority-rights situation is enjoyed by the Slovenians in Trieste, embodied in a special law according to the “London Memorandum“ of 1954. Further protective-measures were set in the “Osimo-convention“ between Italy and former Jugoslavia in 1975. These include the entire region of Friuli-Venezia Giulia. The special law according to the “London Memorandum“ entitles the Slovenian minority in Trieste to use their language and to get an answer in Slovenian, whether directly or by means of an interpreter in public affairs, in administrative bodies, and corporations under public law. However, it is put into practice only in four communities. The same right is recognized in some communities of Gorizia, but nowhere in Udine. In the same four communities of Trieste, administrative and legal documents are available in Slovenian; in the remaining province this is not always in case. In some towns of Gorizia documents in Slovenian are also available. Public inscriptions are seldom found. There is a Slovenian political party, the “Slovenska skupnost“, but many Slovenians are integrated into the majority parties and become candidates on such lists.
Every year about 20 books of various kinds are published in the Slovenian language. There are regular Slovenian theatre performances. In Trieste there is a central Slovenian library, and you can find smaller ones in other districts. There are also a Slovenian academic institute, some museums and several cultural associations.
The situation of the Slovenian schools varies from province to province. In Udine there is only one private kindergarten with Slovenian as the teaching language. In Gorizia and Trieste there are public Slovenian kindergartens, which are financed by the state or community. At the primary school level in Gorizia and Udine there are some schools with Slovenian teaching language financed by the state. In Udine however, there is only one private primary school with Slovenian as teaching language but it is not officially recognized, and at schools with Italian as teaching language Slovenian is not taught as a subject. The situation at the higher schools is similar: In Gorizia and Trieste there are all kinds of state-run higher schools with Slovenian as the teaching language, whereas in Udine there are none. At the schools with Italian as the teaching language Slovenian is also not a subject. Teachers receive the education at the university of Ljubljana (Slovenia). Their diplomas are recognized in Italy according to the terms of the Osimo – Convention of 1975. However, Slovenian is taught as a subject of the universities of Udine and Padua. Slovenian is not the teaching language at any university in this region. There are also some Slovenian language-courses for adults.
There is no television station which broadcasts in Slovenian; this is provided for by law of 1975 but has never been realized. However, there are some Slovenian radio broadcasts. The public radio station broadcasts 12 hours a day in Slovenian, and some private Slovenian radio stations also exist. There is a daily paper as well as some weeklies and periodicals.
The proportion of Slovenian speaking managers rose among the Slovenians from 10% to 21% (Italians from 27% to 37%), the quota of workers dropped, and 6% of Slovenians work in the public service. The economic centre of the region is Trieste, where future projects are more of a scientific and technological nature than production-specific. The parliament passed a resulution on this, known as the “Triest package“, in 1986. The Slovenian population should also from this, in which the term “Alpine-Adriatic economic area“ frequently came up. The Slovenian economy has aproximately 1000 undertakings, about 10 % from the retail trade and 15 % from shipment. Both latter items apply more to the provinces of Trieste and Gorizia. This production system creates, together with the agricultural element, approximately 9.000 jobs. The most important economic associations and interest groups are the Farmers Association (Kmeèka zveza) and the “Slovenian Regional Economic Union“ (Slovensko deželno gospodarsko združenje).
There is a roof organization for sports of the Slovenians in Italy, the “Zveza slovenskih športnih društev v Italiji“. This includes various sports and youth associations which practise a great variety of sports, such as football, basketball and many others.
There is a fund from the Republic of Italy, which financially protects minorities, but it is difficult to state numbers because they differ from year to year. New subventions must be requested yearly.